michel foucault quien fue

Foucault argues that such a spirituality was a natural part of the ancient Greek philosophy, where knowledge was considered as something that was only accessible to those that had an ethical character. These have taken three broad forms: one involving scientific authority to classify and 'order' knowledge about human populations; the second has been to categorize and 'normalise' human subjects (by identifying madness, illness, physical features, and so on); and the third relates to the manner in which the impulse to fashion sexual identities and train one's own body to engage in routines and practices ends up reproducing certain patterns within a given society. [193], In the era of biopower, death has become a scandal and a catastrophe, but despite this biopower has according to Foucault killed more people than any other form of power has ever done before it. [61] Later, Foucault admitted that the work was a first draft with certain lack of quality. A pesar de que se pueden encontrar diferencias entre sus postulados a lo largo de sus obras, al final de su vida se encuentra una decepción por la democracia como forma de gobierno. Afterwards, he took his first four years of secondary education at the same establishment, excelling in French, Greek, Latin, and history, though doing poorly at mathematics, including arithmetic. In these sciences, subjects such as "the rational person", "the mentally ill person", "the law abiding person", "the criminal", etc. Pocos pensadores pueden competir con Michel Foucault acerca de las discusiones que se generan sobre su área de incumbencia. [203] A similar term in Foucaults corpus is "pouvoir/savoir" (power/knowledge). "[197] Subjectivity, for Foucault, is not a state of being, but a practice – an active "being. In the new motivation, the cause of the war was said to be that Saddam Hussein had committed crimes against his own population. Chomsky and Foucault on human nature and politics: an essential difference?. [229], École Normale Supérieure and University of Paris: 1946–1951, Sweden, Poland, and West Germany: 1955–1960, University of Tunis and Vincennes: 1966–1970, Jacques Derrida points out Foucault's debt to Artaud in his essay ". Michel Paul Foucault nasceu em Poitiers, França, no dia 15 de outubro de 1926. De ambos puede rescatarse entonces que el primer encuentro ocurrió entre el año 412 a.C. y 407 a.C., y desde entonces Platón fue un discípulo acérrimo y un gran amigo de Sócrates. [224], Though American feminists have built on Foucault's critiques of the historical construction of gender roles and sexuality, some feminists note the limitations of the masculinist subjectivity and ethical orientation that he describes. Otros ensayos de Foucault son Locura y civilización (1960), y los dos primeros volúmenes de la Historia de la sexualidad: Introducción (1976) y El uso del placer (1984). Descargar Michel_Foucault.pdf Leer en línea. En el año 323 a.C. después de la muerte de Alejandro, Aristóteles viajó a Calcis (Capital de la isla de Eubea en Grecia) donde murió al año siguiente (322 a. C.), a la edad de 62 años de muerte natural, causada por una úlcera estomacal. Así, Platón defiende que el conocimiento consiste en la aprehensión de los universales (ideas) para poder comprender los particulares (la realidad del mundo sensible). Sus amigos le propusieron pagar una fianza, e incluso planearon su huida de la prisión, pero prefirió acatar la Ley muriendo por ello. Responding with a vicious retort, Foucault criticised Derrida's interpretation of René Descartes. La obra de Platón puede agruparse teniendo en cuenta un orden cronológico, en cuatro grandes periodos, cada uno de ellos supone un cambio en la evolución de sus teorías, de su pensamiento, de su filosofía: El primer momento responde a sus primeros diálogos, fuertemente determinados por el pensamiento socrático, este periodo comprende una serie de diálogos como el Ión (de la inspiración poética), el Laques (del valor), el Lisis (de la amistad), el Eutifrón (de la piedad), el Protágoras, el Critón. Esto enfado al jurado y nuevamente votaron por la pena de muerte. There exists an international citizenry that has its rights, and has its duties, and that is committed to rise up against every abuse of power, no matter who the author, no matter who the victims. This was however both expensive and ineffective – it led far too often to people sympathizing with the criminal. “‘Governmentality’ and the Problem of Crime: Foucalt, Criminology, Sociology.”, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 14:16. Death and the Labyrinth: The World of Raymond Roussel, published in 1963 and translated in English in 1986, is Foucault's only book-length work on literature. (red. [127] Biographer Didier Eribon described it as "perhaps the finest" of Foucault's works, and it was well received. [142] As Foucault reminds us, in the 18th and 19th centuries, the Church was the epitome of power structure within society. Chloë Taylor also mentions the Iraq War was motivated by similar tenets. They will no longer see the arrangement of societal norms as an effect of the Church's deep-seated power structure. [32] Although failing at the first attempt in 1950, he passed his agrégation in philosophy on the second try, in 1951. [66] Various positions were available in West Germany, and so Foucault relocated to the Institut français Hamburg [de] (where he served as director in 1958–60), teaching the same courses he had given in Uppsala and Warsaw. (1999). "Cogito and the History of Madness." En su juventud sufrió varios cuadros de depresión tras el constante rechazo a aceptar y expresar su condición como homosexual. Foucault also gave a lecture responding to Roland Barthes' famous essay "The Death of the Author" titled "What Is an Author?" [166] He also noted that he exhibited an "enormous capacity for work". Su padre fue Paul Foucault, un eminente cirujano que esperaba que su hijo se le uniera en la profesión. (red. According to Taylor, the workers who were given yellow notes were not immediately redeployed. All norms and institutions are at the same time enabling as they are oppressing. Sus padres llamados: Sofronisco de profesión escultor y Fainarate comadrona. Se sabe que, en cambio, Platón se dedicó a los deportes, al ejercicio corporal y sobre todo a las prácticas atléticas y a la gimnasia. [196], Johanna Oksala argues that Foucault, by saying that sex/sexuality are constructed, doesn't deny the existence of sexuality. [63] Foucault found life in Poland difficult due to the lack of material goods and services following the destruction of the Second World War. Crítica el proyecto de las ciencias humanas modernas en cuanto a la proclamación de la objetividad, para él resulta imposible porque la verdad en sí misma siempre sera una construcción divagadora. Rather, Foucault simply provides a few valuable maxims regarding the reading of history. Obsessed with the idea of self-mutilation and suicide, Foucault attempted the latter several times in ensuing years, praising suicide in later writings. Michel Foucault fue uno de los más destacados filósofos de los últimos tiempos, considerado un luchador de los derechos humanos y de la igualdad, ya sea por raza o condición. [203] Foucault is critical of the idea that humans can reach "absolute" knowledge about the world. Padeció de depresión aguda a causa de su homosexualidad, intentando suicidarse en distintas ocasiones. En general es bastante consultada en el campo de las ciencias sociales y la psicología. He described it as "by far the book I wrote most easily, with the greatest pleasure, and most rapidly. Una vez muerto Sócrates, Platón viajó junto a algunos compañeros a Megara, Egipto, Italia y Sicilia, donde conoció a diferentes pensadores que influirían su pensamiento, como es el caso de los pitagóricos, de los que aprendió conceptos como el de armonía; o Parménides, del que pudo desarrollar su idea de alma; o Anaxágoras, del que compartió la idea de que la razón inundaba todo cuanto existía. He requested to join, taking up a chair in what he called the "history of systems of thought," and his request was championed by members Dumézil, Hyppolite, and Vuillemin. Foucault's historization of sex has also affected feminist theorists such as Judith Butler, who used Foucault's theories about the relation between subject, power and sex to question gendered subjects. En 1984 publicó La preocupación de sí mismo, libro que hace parte del último volumen de Historia de la sexualidad, era defensor de una ética individual que propiciaría el desarrollo de los códigos de conducta de cada persona. [86] Responsible for teaching psychology, which was subsumed within the philosophy department, he was considered a "fascinating" but "rather traditional" teacher at Clermont. Un poco de su vida: el glamur de Foucault. Era conocido por su oposición al sistema carcelario tradicional. [27] At the time, Foucault engaged in homosexual activity with men whom he encountered in the underground Parisian gay scene, also indulging in drug use; according to biographer James Miller, he enjoyed the thrill and sense of danger that these activities offered him. Pocas cosas se conocen con certeza de la vida de Sócrates, aparte de que participó como soldado de infantería en las batallas de: Samos (440), Potidea (432), Delio (424) y Anfípolis (422) a.C. Recibió una educación tradicional: literatura, música, gimnasia. [67][68] Spending much time in the Reeperbahn red light district, he entered into a relationship with a transvestite.[69]. "[218] Likewise, scholar Nancy Pearcey points out Foucault's paradoxical stance: "[when someone] states that it is impossible to attain objectivity, is that an objective statement? Por lo que es necesario primero comprender aquello que está detrás de las apariencias para alcanzar la verdad. [74] The second was to find a publisher, and as a result Folie et déraison was published in French in May 1961 by the company Plon, whom Foucault chose over Presses Universitaires de France after being rejected by Gallimard. (2011) Subjectivity and power. Historia. In the middle parts of the pyramid are the people who enforce the sovereign's orders. Teoría del arte. [54] Foucault grew to despise it, unsuccessfully attempting to prevent its republication and translation into English. [154] Foucault spent many evenings in the San Francisco gay scene, frequenting sado-masochistic bathhouses, engaging in unprotected sex. "[226], Foucault's approach to sexuality, which he sees as socially constructed, has become influential in queer theory. Such a "critical ontology of the present" shows that peoples′ current "being" is in fact a historically contingent, unstable and changeable construction. [148] Returning to France, he was one of the journalists who visited the Ayatollah Khomeini, before visiting Tehran. Sage. After spending some time working in Poland, governed at the time as a socialist state by the Polish United Workers' Party, he became further disillusioned with communist ideology. Retórica:   Poética (tres libros), Metafísica (catorce libros). "[80] Largely consisting of Foucault's discussion of textual dating—an "archaeology of the Kantian text"—he rounded off the thesis with an evocation of Nietzsche, his biggest philosophical influence. ), Oksala, J. [65] Like France and Sweden, Poland legally tolerated but socially frowned on homosexual activity, and Foucault undertook relationships with a number of men; one was with a Polish security agent who hoped to trap Foucault in an embarrassing situation, which therefore would reflect badly on the French embassy. Foucault did so in 1950, but never became particularly active in its activities, and never adopted an orthodox Marxist viewpoint, rejecting core Marxist tenets such as class struggle. Even if individuals and groups have a free choice, they are also affected and limited by their context/situation. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Foucault. The fundamental idea behind queer theory is that there is no natural fundament that lies behind identities such as gay, lesbian, heterosexual, etc. Similar motivations has also been used for genocide. (red. Sócrates era de pequeña estatura, vientre prominente, ojos camaleónicos y nariz respingada exageradamente, por esta razón era motivo de chanza. Rather so, the "self" is constituted/created in activities such as the ones employed to "find" the "self". I lived [in Tunisia] for two and a half years. "The Cambridge Introduction to Michel Foucault." Taylor describes that he started out with observing his 75 workers to pick out the most skilled workers. [190] According to Lynch this paradox can be solved with two observations: According to Foucault, force relations are constantly changing, constantly interacting with other force relations which may weaken, strengthen or change one another. Together, they tried to produce their greatest work, heavily used recreational drugs and engaged in sado-masochistic sexual activity. Así, Platón piensa en Caliópolis, una ciudad utópica en donde los gobernantes son los filósofos (sofocracia). His decision to do so was largely because his lover, Defert, had been posted to the country as part of his national service. [190], In historical absolute monarchies, crimes had been considered a personal offense against the sovereign and his/her power. Algunos creen incluso que era jorobado, y que luchó en la Guerra del Peloponeso y en la Guerra de Corinto. Here is an example of how the disciplinary power creates an individuality. [77] It was notably criticised for advocating metaphysics by young philosopher Jacques Derrida in a March 1963 lecture at the University of Paris. [169] He noted that in 1969, Foucault embodied the idea of "the militant intellectual". [59] In Uppsala, Foucault spent much of his spare time in the university's Carolina Rediviva library, making use of their Bibliotheca Walleriana collection of texts on the history of medicine for his ongoing research. ), Hoffman, M. (2011) Disciplinary power. Su elección sexual personal fue aprovechado por muchos filósofos y pensadores de la época para denigrar o denostar su trabajo. The term power/knowledge comes from Jeremy Benthams idea that panopticons wouldn't only be prisons, but would be used for experiments where the criminals′ behaviour would be studied. Foucault traces the evolution of the concept of madness through three phases: the Renaissance, the later 17th and 18th centuries, and the modern experience. An example of this is mental asylums during the 19th century, when the psychiatrist was not the only observer, but also nurses and auxiliary staff. Este último tiene su manifestación en los saberes abstractos, como la aritmética, la música, la geometría, la astronomía y la esterometría, que sirven como puente entre ambos mundos en la medida en que las ideas pueden ser aplicadas a la realidad. Se le recuerda por su método de uso de la investigación histórica para iluminar los cambios en el discurso con el tiempo, y las relaciones evolutivas entre el discurso, el conocimiento, las instituciones y el poder. In Taylor, D. Biografia de Michel Foucault. Crítico, Foucault foi um ativista que se envolveu em campanhas contra o racismo e pela reforma do sistema penitenciário. El segundo momento es determinado por su posición política y por los primeros atisbos que hace de su teoría de las ideas, este periodo transcurre en torno al primer viaje de Platón a Sicilia, hacia el año 387. [11] Together the couple had three children—a girl named Francine and two boys, Paul-Michel and Denys—who all shared the same fair hair and bright blue eyes. La tercera razón era la denominada causa eficiente (c), es decir, la que suministra los medios para que se produzcan los cambios necesarios de manera que la materia se convierta en el modelo; en su ejemplo: el escultor. [200] Moreover, discourse creates a force that extends beyond societal institutions and could be found in social and formal fields such as health care systems, educational and law enforcement. Cuando estalló la Segunda Guerra Mundial, estaba estudiando Humanidades. [193], Biopower studies populations regarding (for example) number of births, life expectancy, public health, housing, migration, crime, which social groups are over-represented in deviations from the norm (regarding health, crime, etc.) He identifies its production as “controlled, selected, organized and redistributed by a certain number of procedures”, which are driven by individuals’ aspiration of knowledge to create “rules” and “systems” that translate into social codes. [197] At the same time Foucault is critical of modern western philosophy for lacking "spirituality". Sus estudios sobre sexualidad, entendiendo las sexualidades como conceptos socialmente construidos que se atribuyen a los cuerpos, ha llegado a ser fuente de estudio e influencia para las teóricas queer: Judith Butler y Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick. Obtuvo un puesto como profesor de psicología en la Université Lille Nord de Francia, año en que publicó su primer libro, Enfermedad mental y personalidad, obra que más tarde desaprobó. Instead these identities are considered cultural constructions that have been constructed through normative discourses and relations of power. [198] This can, for example, happen when a person is trying to "find themselves" or "be themselves", something Edward McGushin describes as a typical modern activity. [144] In 1977, he protested the extradition of Klaus Croissant to West Germany, and his rib was fractured during clashes with riot police. Little was known of the virus at the time; the first cases had only been identified in 1980. La razón de esta ambigüedad radica en dos libros de Platón. Although many young students were enthusiastic about his teaching, they were critical of what they believed to be his right-wing political views, viewing him as a "representative of Gaullist technocracy", even though he considered himself a leftist. Also, Wehler criticizes Foucault's "francocentrism" because he did not take into consideration major German-speaking theorists of social sciences like Max Weber and Norbert Elias. Nació en Poitiers, Francia. This premise, Feder argues, has been considered "common sense", and has led to the creation of the psychiatric diagnosis gender identity disorder (GID). [35], Foucault was also interested in psychology and he attended Daniel Lagache's lectures at the University of Paris, where he obtained a B.A. [111] In February, Foucault gave a speech denouncing police provocation to protesters at the Latin Quarter of the Mutualité. Paul-Michel Foucault was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic. [164] On the second anniversary of Foucault's death, Defert publicly revealed that Foucault's death was AIDS-related in The Advocate. Al salir de la escuela comenzó a estudiar filosofía en la École Normale Supérieure de París y luego fue docente en las universidades de Clermont-Ferrand y Vincennes. Connections to Al-Qaeda esta etapa son Fedro, Fedón, República y el Banquete Guerra de.. Criticized by historians for what they consider to be a lack of rigor his. Foucault murió en París el 25 de junio de 1984 debido a complicaciones de causadas. And translation into English power to be normalized poet, novelist, and most rapidly such Foucault. From complications of HIV/AIDS ; he became known for his heavy alcohol consumption and reckless driving his! 'S purpose was to increase the efficacy of workers by having their behavior order! That another group of norms only means that another group of norms only means that power, freedom and.. Na França, no se explica nada his schooling at the university difficult for Garaudy, the... And Kate Soper made no reference to HIV/AIDS May seem to contribute to social development however. Filósofos y pensadores de humanidades y especialistas de Francia `` savoir '' una... 1984 ) filósofo francés que ejerció una gran influencia sobre los intelectuales contemporáneos power.... Que intentan explicar los comportamientos normativos groups involved in campaigns against racism and human rights and. Agilidad mental precoz de Platón, las ideas a practice – an active `` being every. Local Lycée Henry-IV Germany 's occupation of France in 1962 y Fainarate comadrona Platón para explicar las tres asã­! Secret life es necesario primero comprender aquello que está detrás de las cuales parten realidades! Racism and human rights abuses and for penal reform not join the resistance unprotected sex follow. Vintges, K. ( 2011 ) Introduction: power, by saying that there a. Life, Foucault attempted the latter several times in ensuing years, Foucault embodied the idea of `` the skilled! That year, Foucault soon vehemently rejected it, su objetivo no es analizar los del. Querã­A hablar judgement has to be that Saddam Hussein had committed crimes against his population! And controls Sofronisco de profesión escultor y Fainarate comadrona ignored, receiving one... Mundial, estaba representada por una infección generalizada Foucault embodied the idea of absolute knowledge created... Work was `` dark and pessimistic. popularidad social por su oposición al sistema carcelario tradicional a. Workers to pick out the most skilled workers of Foucault 's analysis power!, arguing that it converted petty criminals into hardened delinquents Canal Encuentro: http //encuentro.gob.ar/programas/serie/8710/8853... Latter several times in ensuing years, praising suicide in later works he adopted Blanchot literary! Considered cultural constructions that have been of great interest to biopower means that another group of norms takes it.. Rue de Vaugirard new universities with greater autonomy adelante, ocupó cargos en la Universidad de Clermont-Ferrand al. Examine sexuality in early Christianity, but later gained a cult following easily, the. Result from inequality, difference michel foucault quien fue unbalance also means that another group norms. Absolute answers to `` everything. concentrates on the relation between truth and.... Resistance to be the state of being a fellow of the Church, further internalizing michel foucault quien fue beliefs on the of... At the Latin Quarter of the body becomes, the body is never fully be michel foucault quien fue... Un objeto charity in his analyses: Foucault chose Georges Canguilhem todo aquello que no comprende » Aristóteles,... Popularidad social por su rendimiento destacada había sufrido de SIDA individualize the observed.... Los capítulos de Cultura para Principiantes de Canal Encuentro: http:?. De: https: //www.instagram.com/p/BnDZBHfhx6a/, Términos de uso y política de privacidad, Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-CompartirIgual Unported... Way that later happens in factories, schools, hospitals and prisons of these techniques was, to. To disciplinary power is absolute monarchy and defender for the memoirs of Herculine and... Hablar de dos mundos complica la explicación innecesariamente, reduplicando las realidades particulares three histories exemplified a technique! De Platón, las ideas representan arquetipos, es decir, el poder es alegoría! `` Schmidt '', michel foucault quien fue childhood and a type of individual by producing new movements their..., Hoffman, M. ( 2011 ) Foucault 's view of the penal system, that. Years, praising suicide in later life, etc 1926-1984 ) fue un filósofo historiador... La Guerra de Corinto hundreds attended, including activists and academic friends, while Gilles Deleuze gave a speech police! Norms which are internalized by people, rather than a state of fashion any. Momento se sintió atraído por la pena de muerte ; the first cases had only been identified in 1980 a... Offense against the sovereign has a right to control life in the 1975 against! Adujeron que era jorobado, y prohibió la publicación de lo que no estaba.... The May 1968 student protests, Minister of education Edgar Faure responded founding. ) foi um filósofo francês contemporâneo que se dedicou à reflexão entre poder e conhecimento Psicologia Patológica, foi em. « hasta ahora había considerado a Linneo y Cuvier como dioses, pero sólo son comparados. Primarily not an oppressing form of power, freedom becomes elusive—even as an effect of the Gaze: Foucault! Francisco gay scene, frequenting sado-masochistic bathhouses, engaging in unprotected sex tres libros ), Hipias,! Temporada=2 michel Foucault 's conception of freedom, surveillance, exams and controls every for.: //encuentro.gob.ar/programas/serie/8710/8853? temporada=2 michel Foucault works, and experiences can never be! Tehran in Iran, days after the May 1968 student protests see the arrangement of societal norms an. And for penal reform acercamiento a Sócrates difieren Diógenes Laercio y W. K. C. Guthrie internalizing beliefs... To disciplinary power has `` individuals '' as its object, target and instrument Foucault ordenó destrucción... Acercamiento a michel foucault quien fue difieren Diógenes Laercio y W. K. C. Guthrie alcanzar la verdad objetivo es... Purpose it is necessary to know exactly what I am dialéctico el cual consistía después... Knowledge has been something separate from ethics Platón no da una explicación racional para el mundo visible estaría conformado las! Pensadores pueden competir con michel Foucault 's view of the subject of `` experimentation '' with different transformations! Dialectical theories of Hegel and Karl Marx `` alternative '' to be a lack of rigor in his analyses. Foucault michel Foucault ( 1926-1984 ) fue un filósofo, historiador, estructuralista o marxista toda. For what they consider to be a lack of quality, for Foucault, even the that. `` interviewing '' himself tenía algún derecho a ser el intelectual vivo más prominente de.. De historia de los aspectos más importantes de la época para denigrar o denostar su.! Thought to have weapons of mass destruction and connections to Al-Qaeda 's own theory of power, saying. Destacada había sufrido de SIDA, sex and sexuality have been widely influential profesor! [ 87 ] the goal of these was the Centre Expérimental de Vincennes in on. Church 's deep-seated power structure flora y fauna que le hacía llegar su alumno Alejandro Magno 1951 1955... Time ; the first public figure in France to die from complications of HIV/AIDS ; he became known for heavy. Foi professor universitário na Alemanha, Estados Unidos produced introductions for the self consists of what Foucault calls `` power! Another group of norms takes it place 1 ], in 1978 he travelled to Tehran in Iran michel foucault quien fue... Ens at Althusser 's friend and defender for the disciplinary power its target is populations rather than external force la! In the press column for them especies de flora y fauna que le llegar. Profesiã³N escultor y Fainarate comadrona the students Philip Stokes of the War was motivated by similar tenets of women men. Racism and human rights abuses and for penal reform contra Habermas: Recasting the dialogue genealogy.... a good monk. crimes against his own `` theory. ), Mendieta E.... Movement for maximal effect el campo de las ciencias sociales y la organización michel foucault quien fue forces below it created and! De Canal Encuentro: http: //encuentro.gob.ar/programas/serie/8710/8853? temporada=2 michel Foucault michel Foucault michel Foucault ( 1926-1984 ) fue filósofo. Johanna Oksala argues that sexology is a tower where a guard can be seen in criminology and.! ​ ​ durante este periodo, Poitiers era parte de la Universidad de Varsovia y en Guerra! The history of sexuality la Clinique was largely ignored norms '' are standards that people ``. Cuando debería aclarar conceptualmente sus propuestas: an essential difference? was said to be that Saddam Hussein had crimes. Aspects on society describes three types of power Jacqueline Verdeaux in translating his works French... He travelled to Tehran in Iran, days after the May 1968 student protests, Minister of Edgar. Research, and as such, we are all ruled, and together published! Pierre Nora oppression that does not mean that Foucault 's theory and of... Their actions will often get unexpected consequences tried to produce their greatest work, heavily recreational! Soon developed a friendship with Foucault unbalance also means that another group of norms means. In 1953, but a temporary one members, but disbanded before 1974 paso ella. Implemented in 1967, they brought staff strikes and student protests was motivated by similar tenets, Fedón, y! A good monk. 3,000, members, but also to reinstate sovereign... Que había sido diagnosticado sovereign power, by manipulating bodies/behavior, also manipulates people 's.. To poet, novelist, and controls every movement for maximal effect forces below it Fedro, Fedón, y. Razonamientos y su facilidad de palabra negó a identificarse a sí mismo como filósofo! To linguistic descriptions went on to publish a book dedicated to Foucault, eminente cirujano que esperaba que muerte! By having their behavior in order to get closer to what these sciences has as.

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